How does the world wide web work? Why in a couple of seconds you can find the answer to almost any question? We will explain in simple words what happens after clicking on the link and how the Internet works.
What is the Internet
The Internet appeared in the late 1960-ies, having evolved from the Arpanet network of the U.S. Department of defense. The aim of Arpanet was to simultaneously take advantage of the existing capabilities of several large computers and link universities and research institutes into one network.
In simple terms, the Internet is a collection of a large number of computer networks that exchange data. This allows us to use services like email or visit websites.
How the Internet works
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Websites, which can be called important components of the world wide web, are crucial for data exchange. They are distributed all over the world and send data to each other. Typically, tens or sometimes hundreds of service providers (providers) connect to one particular website. Inside the network node data exchange is already among providers. Providers, in turn, provide customers with access to the Internet by providing appropriate connections, such as DSL or LTE.
The world’s largest hub, if you look at the volume of traffic passing through it, is located in Germany, in Frankfurt am main, where it is distributed over 19 data centers.
Many companies use their own Internet networks, which become part of the Internet with the installation of a connection to the provider. While individuals are mostly only users and recipients of information or services, many companies offer Internet services themselves. In addition to providing General information, they may include online trading, cloud storage or online reservation services for goods or services.
The actual connection between Internet sites and providers is carried out worldwide by means of fiber-optic cables, thanks to which a high speed of data transmission is possible. Connecting private homes or companies with the Internet, also sometimes called the”last mile” – “last mile”, is usually implemented through a copper cable, radio or fiberglass.
For everything to work smoothly, data exchange is regulated by so-called protocols. For example, the Internet Protocol establishes that the data transmitted is broken down into small packets from the sender and then transmitted and reassembled to the recipient.
To let the data packet know where it was sent from and where it should come each computer involved in the communication receives a unique address – IP, which consists of four blocks of numbers, between which put a point. Since it is unlikely that anyone can remember the IP-addresses of visited websites or other services, there is a domain name System – DNS). Domains can be used on the Internet instead of IP addresses as more understandable “talking” names of sites or Internet servers. The user is familiar with them as www addresses or URLS.
What happens when I visit the site?
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Calling a website is just one of the countless processes on the Internet. Let’s look at a simple example of how it works.the request will be sent to your provider after you press Enter. The provider translates the name to the IP address of the target server on which the web page is stored.
2. The provider uses one or more special servers to “recode” the names. They are called DNS servers, and they have only one task. DNS servers act as a dictionary and store a directory of all Internet sites and their associated IP addresses.
3. When the IP address of the destination server is determined, the request is forwarded through the website to the web server on which the page is located. Because the Internet spans the world, there are other ways to transmit data packets. To find the best way, all networks are connected by routers that accept data packets and then decide where to forward them.
4. When the request reaches its destination, the server responds and returns the content of the website. They should now find the path to your computer from which you sent the request.
5. For this chain to work, data packets contain not only information about the recipient, but also the IP address of the sender. The procedure is the same: through the router, response packets go from network to network and finally get to your computer. There they gather together and a search website is displayed in the browser.